Hamman’s Study Diary

October 8, 2007

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Computer Systems

Areas covered: 

a. History

b. Architectural developments

c. Technological developments

d. Performance measures

a. History: Development of computers; first program-controlled computers (Z1, Z2, Z3); first electronic computer (ENIAC, IAS, EDVAC, EDSAC); first stored-program “Harvard architecture” computer (MARK I, II, III, IV); first minicomputer (PDP-8); first microprocessor (Intel 4004); first personal computer (Apple Macintosh, VAX-11); first supercomputers (CDC 6600, Cray-I); parallel computing (Intel iPSC, Intel Paragon); trends in development from centralized to distributed; cluster computing, grid computing

b. Architectural developments: Use of Complex Instruction Set Computers – CISC (Apple PowerPC, IBM); complex tasks such as converting BCD to binary; use of Reduced Instruction Set Computers – RISC (MIPS, Sun SPARC); reduction in instruction sets and addressing modes

c. Technological developments: Bipolar, MOS, CMOS; Integration scales – small-scale (SSI), medium-scale (MSI), large-scale (LSI), very large-scale (VLSI), wafer-scale (WSI); Moore’s law

d. Performance measures: Metrices – Cycles Per Instruction (CPI); Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS); Millions of Floating Point Instructions Per Second (MFLOPS); arithmetic and geometric mean; Other attributes –  CPU/execution time; cycle count; instruction count; Amdahl’s law; speed-up measure

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